23 mayo, 2015 Obras Civiles y Acabados

Arquitectura Mimetica Sagrada Familia Gaudi

Autor: Jeremy Berlin Fecha: 2015-01-08

«MI CLIENTE NO TIENE PRISA», solía decir Antoni Gaudí, el piadoso arquitecto que hablaba de Dios al explicar por qué la católica y romana iglesia de la Sagrada Familia demoraba tanto en terminarse.

Casi un siglo más tarde continúa como una obra en curso, un sueño de agujas y fachadas ornamentadas que se eleva cientos de metros de altura en el centro de Barcelona, atrayendo la mirada (así como los euros) de unos dos millones de visitantes cada año. En noviembre pasado, el papa Benedicto XVI la consagró como basílica. Una fecha de terminación probable es 2026.

Y si la historia engendra a la historia, es el momento oportuno de revaluar los esfuerzos épicos de Antoni Gaudí, así como las ideas proféticas que los sustentaron.

Desde siempre, la Sagrada Familia ha sido reverenciada y vilipendiada. Los surrealistas reclamaban a Gaudí como uno de sus integrantes, mientras que George Orwell calificó la iglesia como «uno de los edificios más espantosos del mundo». Tan idiosincrásica como el propio Gaudí, es una visión inspirada en la fe religiosa y el amor por la naturaleza del arquitecto.

Él entendía que en el mundo natural abundan las formas curvas, no las líneas rectas. Y advirtió que la construcción natural tiende a favorecer los materiales nervudos como la madera, los músculos y los tendones. Teniendo estos modelos orgánicos en mente, Gaudí basó sus construcciones en una premisa sencilla: si la naturaleza es obra de Dios, y si las formas arquitectónicas se derivan de la naturaleza, la mejor manera de honrar a Dios es proyectar edificios basados en su obra.

Como señala Joan Bassegoda Nonell, investigadora de Barcelona, «la famosa frase de Gaudí, ?la originalidad es regresar al origen?, significa que la naturaleza es el origen de todas las cosas creadas por Dios». La fe de Gaudí era la suya propia. Sin embargo, su confianza en la hermosa eficiencia de la ingeniería natural sin duda prefiguraba la ciencia contemporánea de la biomimética.

Nacido en 1852 cerca de la ciudad de Reus, Gaudí se crió fascinado por la geometría y las maravillas naturales del campo catalán. Después de la escuela de arquitectura, forjó su propio estilo (síntesis de elementos del neogótico, el art nouveau y orientales). Para Gaudí, forma y función eran inseparables; la belleza estética se hallaba sólo después de buscar la eficiencia estructural, que rige el mundo natural.»Nada es arte si no procede de la naturaleza», concluía.

En 1883 Gaudí heredó el Templo Expiatorio de la  Sagrada Familia de otro arquitecto, que había construido unos cimientos neogóticos. Gaudí imaginaba una inmensa narración visual sobre la vida de Cristo, pero sabía que el proyecto enorme no se terminaría durante su vida. Por más ede 12 años presentaba maquetas en lugar de planos hechos con dibujos convencionales. Estos modelos, muchos de los cuales fueron destruidos por vándalos durante la Guerra Civil Española, han sido vitales para los sucesores de Antoni Gaudí. «Contienen el ADN estructural de todo el edificio», explica Mark Burry, arquitecto que tiene su despacho en Australia y quien ha trabajado en la Sagrada Familia durante 31 años, valiéndose de planos y técnicas cibernéticas para traducir los planos de Gaudí a los artesanos actuales.

«Puedes extraer el todo arquitectónico incluso a partir de fragmentos. Los modelos son la manera como Gaudí afrontaba el desafío del arquitecto: tomar una idea compleja y holística, y explicarla de tal modo que otros pudieran entenderla y continuarla después de tu muerte».

Adrian Bejan dice que las fachadas de la Sagrada Familia se basan en el número áureo, proporción geométrica que «está detrás de todo arte estéticamente grato». El distinguido profesor de ingeniería mecánica de la Universidad de Duke, cuya «ley constructal» señala que en la naturaleza el diseño es un fenómeno universal de la física, afirma que Gaudí es un antepasado y un «equilibrista sobre la cuerda que une el arte y la ciencia. Él entendió que la naturaleza es construida por las leyes de las matemáticas. Lo más resistente es inherentemente más ligero y más eficaz y, por lo tanto, lo más bello». En el centro de la visión de Gaudí hay una verdad eterna. Como afirma Bassegoda en un escrito: «La lección de Gaudí para el futuro no es la de copiar sus soluciones, sino buscar la inspiración en la naturaleza… la naturaleza no pasa de moda».

Fuente:Natgeo

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